Hudaibiya: A Victory In The Long Term
Treaty of Hudaibiya has a pivotal role in the Islamic history. Its significance is immense with regard to the establishment of the Muslim Ummah in the Arabian Peninsula.
In 6 AH the Holy Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) dreamt that he was performing Tawaf around the Holy Kabah. To make his dream come true, he announced his intent to perform Umrah. He gathered over 1400 Muslims and around 70 camels and marched towards Makkah to perform Umrah. The Quraish leaders came to know about this and decided that they will not let Muslims enter Makkah. The Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) sent Hazrat Usman to negotiate on behalf of the Muslims. A rumor reached the Muslims that he had been killed by the Quraish. This upset the Muslims and they began preparing for a battle. When the Makkans came to know about this they released Hazrat Usman and sent Suhail bin Amr who was known for his toughness while dealing to sign a peace treaty with the Muslims. Following were the terms of this treaty which we all know today as a treaty of Hudaibiya: –
The two parties shall not fight for ten years.
Any person or tribe shall be free to join Mohammad, likewise, any person or tribe shall be free to join the Quraish.
Any Makkan who goes to Madina shall be returned to Makkah and anyone from Madina goes to Makkah shall not be returned.
If anyone goes to Mohammad, whose father or guardian is alive shall be returned to his father or guardian. But if anyone goes to Quraish shall not be returned.
Muslims cannot perform Umrah this year but will be allowed to perform Umrah next year.
Rights of Equality
Seemingly this treaty had clauses that clearly violated the rights of equality for the Muslims. But Hudiabiya turned out to be a victory in the long term. Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) demonstrated great patience and endurance by agreeing to the clauses of the treaty. He had envisioned the victory of Muslims in this treaty. Firstly the treaty officially recognized the Prophet as the leader of the state of Madina. Secondly, it ended the enmity between the Muslims and the Quraish of Makkah. Now the Muslims were free to practice and preach Islam. Even if any Muslim was to be retained in Makkah it was seen as an opportunity by the Prophet for the spread of Islam in Makkah. After this treaty was signed the Prophet (PBUH) received a divine revelation of Allah in which he declared it as Fatah al-Mubeen (Manifest Victory). Most importantly, the treaty of Hudaibiya led to the conquest of Makkah.